Cleanhearing Sono technology is based on years of clinical research into the effects of pulsed electromagnetic stimulation on tinnitus and related conditions, leading to approval for Sono as a Class IIa medical device for tinnitus relief at home.
Numerous controlled studies on pulsed electromagnetic stimulation have shown it to be significantly more effective in relieving tinnitus symptoms when compared to sham treatments with no adverse events observed. Notched music, provided via the Cleanhearing app, is also shown by clinical trials to be beneficial and safe for a subset of tinnitus patients with a pure-tone tinnitus.
The following studies examine the application of electromagnetic stimulation and notched music for tinnitus.
Cacace, A. T. et al. (2017) ‘Glutamate is down-regulated and tinnitus loudness-levels decreased following rTMS over auditory cortex of the left hemisphere: A prospective randomized single-blinded sham-controlled cross-over study.’, Hearing research. Netherlands. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2017.10.017.
Folmer, R. L. et al. (2015) ‘Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Treatment for Chronic Tinnitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial.’, JAMA otolaryngology– head & neck surgery. United States, 141(8), pp. 716–722. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2015.1219.
Formanek, M. et al. (2018) ‘Combined transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of chronic tinnitus.’, Annals of clinical and translational neurology. United States, 5(7), pp. 857–864. doi: 10.1002/acn3.587.
Lee, H. Y. et al. (2013) ‘Short term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with catastrophic intractable tinnitus: preliminary report.’, Clinical and experimental otorhinolaryngology. Korea (South), 6(2), pp. 63–67. doi: 10.3342/ceo.2013.6.2.63.
Li, X., Xu, H., Lei, T., Yang, Y., Jing, D., Dai, S., Luo, P., & Xu, Q. (2017). A Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Protects against Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity by Modulating the Endocannabinoid System in HT22 Cells. Frontiers in neuroscience, 11, 42.
Lo, Y. L. et al. (2014) ‘A comparison study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for tinnitus treatment in an Asian population.’, Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. Netherlands, 119, pp. 96–99. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2014.01.012.
Olzewski et al. (2022) ‘Assessment of Subjective Tinnitus Treatment Results Using a Prototype Device for Electrical and Magnetic Stimulation of the Ear-Preliminary Study.’ Life (Basel) 2022 Jun 19;12(6):918. doi: 10.3390/life12060918. PMID: 35743949; PMCID: PMC9225432.
Piccirillo, J. F. et al. (2011) ‘Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to the temporoparietal junction for tinnitus.’, Archives of otolaryngology–head & neck surgery. United States, 137(3), pp. 221–228. doi: 10.1001/archoto.2011.3.
Roland, N. J. et al. (1993) ‘Electromagnetic stimulation as a treatment of tinnitus: a pilot study’, Clinical Otolaryngology & Allied Sciences. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2273.1993.tb00847.x.
Rossi, S. et al. (2007) ‘Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on chronic tinnitus: a randomised, crossover, double blind, placebo controlled study’, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 78(8), pp. 857–863. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2006.105007.
Shore, S. E., Roberts, L. E., & Langguth, B. (2016). Maladaptive plasticity in tinnitus–triggers, mechanisms and treatment. Nature reviews. Neurology, 12(3), 150–160.
Weiler, E. W., & Brill, K. (2005). Pulsed Magnetic-Field Therapy: A New Concept to Treat Tinnitus? The international tinnitus journal, 11(1), 58–62.
Notched music (Cleanhearing tinnitus app)
Eggermont, J.J., & Roberts, L.E. (2012). The neuroscience of tinnitus: understanding abnormal and normal auditory perception. Front Syst. neurosci. 6:53.
Lugli, M., Romani, R., Ponzi, S., Bacciu, S., & Parmigiani, S. (2009). The windowed sound therapy: a new empirical approach for an effective personalized treatment of tinnitus. The international tinnitus journal, 15(1), 51-61.
Okamoto, H., Stracke, H., Stoll, W., & Pantev, C. (2010). Listening to tailor-made notched music reduces tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related auditory cortex activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(3), 1207-1210.
Pantev, C., Okamoto, H., & Teismann, H. (2012). Music-induced plasticity and lateral inhibition in the human auditory cortex as foundations for tonal tinnitus treatment. Frontiers in systems neuroscience, 6(June), 50.
Pantev, C., Okamoto, H., & Teismann, H. (2012). Tinnitus: the dark side of the auditory cortex plasticity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1252(1), 253-8.
Pape, J., paraskevopoulos, E., Bruchmann, M., Wollbrink, A., Rudack, C., & Pantev, C.(2014). Playing and listening to tailor-made notched music: Cortical plasticity induced by unimodal and multimodal training in tinnitus patients. Neural Plasticity. 2014:516163.
Stein, A., Engell, A., Junghoefer, M., Wunderlich, R., Lau, P., Wollbrink, A., Rudack, C., Pantev, C.(2015). Inhibition-induced plasticity in tinnitus patients after repetitive exposure to tailor-made notched music. Clinical Neurophysiology, S1388-2457(14)00473-8.
Stein, A., Engell, A., Lau, P., Wunderlich., R., Junghoefer, M., Wollbrink, A., Bruchmann, M., Rudack, V., & Pantev, C. (2015). Enhancing inhibition-induced plasticity in tinnitus-spectral energy contrasts in tailor-made notched music matter. PLoS One. 10, e0126494.
Stein, A., Wunderlich, R., lau, P., Engell, A., Wollbrink, A., Shaykevich, A., Kuhn, J-T., Holling, H., Rudack, C., & Pantev, C., (2016). Clinical trial on tonal tinnitus with tailor-made notched music training. BMC Neurol. 16, 38.
Stracke, H., Okamoto, H., Pantev, C.(2010). Customized notched music training reduces tinnitus loudness. Communicative integrative biology, 3(3), 274-277.
Teismann, H., Okamoto, H., & Pantev, C.(2011). Short and intense tailor -made notched music training against tinnitus:the tinnitus frequency matters. PLoS One, 6(9), e24685.
Teismann, H., Wollbrick, A., Okamoto, H., Schlaug, G., Rudack, C., & Pantev, C.(2014). Combining transcranial direct current stimulation and tailor-made notched music training decrease tinnitus-related distress -a pilot study. PLoS One 9, e89904
Weisz, N.(2013). Aktuelle Trends aus der neurowissenschaftlichen Tinnitus-Forschung und deren klinische Implikationen. Tinnitus-Forum, 17(1), 18-21.
Weisz, N., & Langguth, B.(2010). [Cortical plasticity and changes in tinnitus: treatment options]. HNO, 58(10), 983-9
Willson, E., Schlaug, G., & Pantev, C.(2010). Listening to filtered music as a treatment option for tinnitus: A review. Music perception, 27(4), 327-330.
Wunderlich, R., Lau, P., Stein, A., Engell, A., Wollbrink, A., Rudack, C., & Pantev, C(2015). Impact of spectral Notch width on Neurophysiological Plasticity and Clinical Effectiveness of the Tailor-made Notched Music Training. PLoS One 10, e0138595.